Johns [ edit ] Adaptation of the Johns reflective model Professor of nursing Christopher Johns designed a structured mode of reflection that provides a practitioner with a guide to gain greater understanding of his or her practice. Johns draws on the work of Barbara Carper to expand on the notion of "looking out" at a situation. It also helps us detect hegemonic assumptions—assumptions that we think are in our own best interests, but actually work against us in the long run. Our autobiography as a learner.
Being awarded a fellowship to attend the seminar, which was jointly funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities, enabled me to take the time to read deeply in the literature of the profession, where I discovered that the failings I had been seeing in American archival institutions were not primarily a consequence of bad management, but of the fact that the best methods of the profession were inadequate to the task at hand.
SinceI have not pursued this research directly and the work has remained dormant. I have spoken about it publicly from time to time, but have not forced others or myself to deal with its conclusions.
Increasingly I have felt that this is irresponsible of me, and am glad to be bringing it out for public scrutiny at this time. In the process, the first four chapters have been substantially rewritten, but the underlying structure of the argument, and its conclusions, have not been affected.
Although references throughout the text were updated to reflect recent literature, the modest amendments and refinements of archival methods and practices proposed during the past three years have not required me fundamentally to revise my premises.
The first four essays address the four fundamental activities involved in the management of the physical record: Of each of these activities I ask whether our present methods are adequate and if not, how they can be adjusted within the practical limitations which cultural repositories face.
Throughout, my audience is the professional, but I do not mean simply those who work in repositories called archives. I include here museum curators, librarians and others whose efforts are devoted to preserving cultural memory and making it available to future generations, and who frequently are also responsible for archival materials.
Chapter five explores an idea relevant to the changes in methodology proposed in the first four chapters. Intelligent artifices are presented as a tool for expanding intellectual control, and consequently, access and use. Chapter six returns to the themes in the introduction to consider the role of the archivist and the nature of the archival endeavor, and to propose new views of both based on the ideas in the intervening chapters.
More important even than the generous financial support I received from the Mellon Foundation and NEH is the intellectual support of Francis Bluin and Bill Wallach of the Bentley Library, and of my colleagues in the Seminar - Chris Baer, Greg Bradsher, Judy Endelman, Avra Michelson and Peter Sigmond - who read and discussed drafts of these papers with me that summer and stimulated me by their own research.
In addition, I would like to thank Helen Samuels and Ed Bridges who read and critiqued drafts inand Richard Cox who read drafts in Finally, these essays have been greatly improved by the careful editing of Lynn Cox, Managing Editor of Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report, without whose assistance they would not have been published.
Indeed, keeping and using the past is central to our concept of human cultures and civilization. In the oral culture of non-literate societies, in the myths and fables refined by centuries of retelling, we are delighted to discover a source of fundamental truths, of the themes which make us essentially human.
This record of apocryphal events, reflecting historical facts but not bound utterly by them, is a distillation of a once living testimony. The thematic integrity and size of the oral record, made it possible for a single human mind to comprehend the whole, and to relate it to the next generation in appropriate contexts.
The advent of literacy posed a new problem for human societies, for in freezing the memory of a culture in material formats, in creating a written or recorded memory which resists transformation, man provided himself with an objectified past which stands in opposition to the present in a way which the oral tradition, so bending and resilient, never did.
Because societies were enabled to extend themselves further across space and time through writing, and subsequently through the recording of sounds and images, than through the oral record, the "technology of preserved communication" has allowed for the development of a more variegated cultural repertoire 1.
In so doing, it has created a world so complex that no individual can possibly master it all. Recently, the record of human endeavor has grown so large that no individual can even master where to find it all.
In such a world, special roles have been created to assure the interpretation, retention and transmission of culture and special institutions have been established to support these functions.
Archives, historical societies, libraries and museums are the institutions created by our society to play the role of selecting, conserving, and providing access to the record of our culture. To an extent far greater than the society admits, these professional keepers of cultural evidence are not simply custodians of our recorded past, but shapers of the cultural memory.
This is true in the first place because archives and museums are in no position to acquire a complete record of our culture though libraries might, in the aggregate, acquire a nearly complete set of the published record of our society.
But it is true for a more basic reason as well: Consequently, like Adam naming the creatures of the earth, they frame our conceptual universe and constitute at the same time both our cultural heritage and the record of that heritage. The first, and greatest, challenge of archives is to select the archival record, and shape that heritage.
The cultural record is continuously being deposited and eroded. It is deposited at different rates by different groups within the society and at different times in the life of the culture reflecting the socio-economic and cultural-political requirements of the society.
The cultural record is also subjected to differential rates of erosion due to the properties of the physical medium upon which it is recorded, the care taken of it by the sub-culture in which it is created, and the need which the culture has for the particular information it holds.
Archivists live with the certainty both that all activities leave some recorded memory in our society, and that each recorded memory will disappear in time without intervention by some preserving agent.Media and Elections. The media are essential to democracy, and a democratic election is impossible without media.
A free and fair election is not only about the freedom to vote and the knowledge of how to cast a vote, but also about a participatory process where voters engage in public debate and have adequate information about parties, policies, candidates and the election process itself in. A. A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time.
ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence. ARCHIVAL METHODS Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report #9 (Pittsburgh, Archives and Museum Informatics, ) by David Bearman, Archives & Museum Informatics. Reflective practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning.
According to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively.
The University of Arizona (UA) is the flagship institution in the State of Arizona and offers graduate programs in more than areas of study. Graduate programs of study are described here in our Graduate Catalog and Program Descriptions. Introducing Five Perspectives on Teaching A Transmission Perspective: delivering content My job is two fold: First, I have a lot of people that have to learn this math so they can go on to something else, whether it’s some application of it or the next course in algebra, or calculus.