Digmaang Tagalog by the Spanish,  was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain - including its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies. The Philippine Revolution began in Augustwhen the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunanan anti-colonial secret organization.
The Philippine archipelago was settled at least 30, years ago, when migrations from the Indonesian archipelago and elsewhere are believed to have occurred.
Additional migrations took place over the next millennia. Over time, social and political organization developed and evolved in the widely scattered islands. The basic unit of settlement was the barangay a Malay word for boat that came to be used to denote a communal settlement.
Kinship groups were led by a datu chiefand within the barangay there were broad social divisions consisting of nobles, freemen, and dependent and landless agricultural workers and slaves.
Over the centuries, Indo-Malay migrants were joined by Chinese traders. A major development in the early period was the introduction of Islam to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from the Indonesian islands.
In the midst of the introduction of Islam came the introduction of Christianity, with the arrival of the Spanish. He arrived in March during his circumnavigation of the globe. He claimed land for the king of Spain but was killed by a local chief.
Following several more Spanish expeditions, the first permanent settlement was established in Cebu in After defeating a local Muslim ruler, the Spanish set up their capital at Manila inand they named their new colony after King Philip II of Spain.
In doing so, the Spanish sought to acquire a share in the lucrative spice trade, develop better contacts with China and Japan, and gain converts to Christianity.
Only the third objective was eventually realized.
As with other Spanish colonies, church and state became inseparably linked in carrying out Spanish objectives. Several Roman Catholic religious orders were assigned the responsibility of Christianizing the local population.
The civil administration built upon the traditional village organization and used traditional local leaders to rule indirectly for Spain. Through these efforts, a new cultural community was developed, but Muslims known as Moros by the Spanish and upland tribal peoples remained detached and alienated.
There was no direct trade with Spain and little exploitation of indigenous natural resources. Most investment was in the galleon trade. But, as this trade thrived, another unwelcome element was introduced—sojourning Chinese entrepreneurs and service providers.
Although the Philippines was returned to Spain at the end of the war, the British occupation marked the beginning of the end of the old order.
Rebellions broke out in the north, and while the Spanish were busy fighting the British, Moros raided from the south. The Chinese community, resentful of Spanish discrimination, supported the British with laborers and armed men.
The restoration of Spanish rule brought reforms aimed at promoting the economic development of the islands and making them independent of subsidies from New Spain. The galleon trade ceased inand from that date onward the Royal Company of the Philippines, which had been chartered inpromoted direct and tariff-free trade between the islands and Spain.
In the Royal Company of the Philippines was abolished, and free trade was formally recognized. With its excellent harbor, Manila became an open port for Asian, European, and North American traders.
In additional ports were opened to foreign commerce, and by the late nineteenth century three crops—tobacco, abaca, and sugar—dominated Philippine exports. Also in the late nineteenth century, Chinese immigration, now with official approval, increased, and Chinese mestizos became a feature in Filipino social and economic life.
So, too, did the growing Filipino native elite class of ilustrados literally, enlightened oneswho became increasingly receptive to liberal and democratic ideas. Conservative Catholic friars continued to dominate the Spanish establishment, however. They resisted the inclusion of native clergy and were economically secure, with their large land holdings and control of churches, schools, and other establishments.
Despite the bias against native priests, brothers, and nuns, some members of Filipino religious orders became prominent to the point of leading local religious movements and even insurrections against the establishment.
Additionally, ilustrados returning from education and exile abroad brought new ideas that merged with folk religion to spur a national resistance.
His writings as a member of the Propaganda Movement intellectually active, upper-class Filipino reformers had a considerable impact on the awakening of the Filipino national consciousness. His books were banned, and he lived in self-imposed exile.
Rizal returned from overseas in to found the Liga Filipina Philippine Leaguea national, nonviolent political organization, but he was arrested and exiled and the league dissolved. One result was the split of the nationalist movement between the reform-minded ilustrados and a more revolutionary and independence-minded plebeian constituency.
Many of the latter joined the Katipunan, a secret society founded by Andres Bonifacio in and committed to winning national independence. Bythe year the Katipunan rose in revolt against Spain, it had 30, members.
Although Rizal, who had again returned to the Philippines, was not a member of the Katipunan, he was arrested and executed on December 30,for his alleged role in the rebellion.
Spanish troops defeated the insurgents, however, and Aguinaldo and his government went into exile in Hong Kon g in December Aguinaldo returned, and his 12, troops kept the Spanish forces bottled up in Manila until U. The Spanish cause was doomed, but the Americans did nothing to accommodate the inclusion of Aguinaldo in the succession.Spanish-American War for Cuba's Independence.
By the end of the s, Spain had lost all of its New World colonies except Cuba and Puerto Rico. Philippines - The period of U.S.
influence: The juxtaposition of U.S. democracy and imperial rule over a subject people was sufficiently jarring to most Americans that, from the beginning, the training of Filipinos for self-government and ultimate independence—the Malolos Republic was conveniently ignored—was an essential rationalization for U.S.
hegemony in the islands.
The Philippine-American War, – After its defeat in the Spanish-American War of , Spain ceded its longstanding colony of the Philippines to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. On February 4, , just two days before the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty, fighting broke out between American forces and Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo who sought independence.
The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 67, years ago as the discovery of Callao Man suggested. Negrito groups first inhabited the isles.
Groups of Austronesians later migrated to the islands.. Scholars generally believe that these social groups eventually . Oct 01, · Philippine Revolution In Philippine Revolution Filipino independence struggle that, after more than years of Spanish colonial rule, exposed the weakness of Spanish administration but failed to evict Spaniards from the islands.
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