The theory offers a basis for organizational development with high employee motivation to achieve company objectives. He postulated that human motivation acted to satisfy the most basic needs first, and when those were met, the individual was motivated to meet higher level needs. The hierarchy classified physiological needs such as food and shelter as the most basic needs, followed by security needs such as personal safety and job security.
While some behaviourists and social scientists justify that it is people as well as situations surrounding us that causes us to behave in certain ways, on the other hand, physiological researchers put forward some evidences that genetics, cognitive processes and bodily motives are the underlying factors that can explain our behaviour.
So far up until the present time, based on these kinds of opposing ideas, a plenty of theories about organizational motivation have appeared. Motivational Theories The notion of motivation is defined by Mullins as any internal factor that helps people reach their aims in order to satisfy their basic needs.
Accordingly, it is clear that motivation is tightly related to wants and needs of humans. Individuals set goals in either short-term or long-term in intent to meet what they require for living.
Generally, the theories based on motivation flow from two broad approaches: While there is more emphasis, in content theories, on the motivating forces, in contrast, process theories signify the real process of motivation.
With regard to this, people follow certain steps to fulfil their overall requirements and the prevalent need is human physiological needs. It is followed by safety, love, esteem and self-actualization requirements.
Herzberg theorised that there two types of factors, absence of one of which leads an individual to feel discontent. Influence of various Leadership and Management Styles and Approaches on Motivation in organizations Leadership is considered as the base of organizational foundation and activities.
For one thing, one of the former leadership styles, Bureaucracy is primarily oriented towards regulating organizations through centralized decision making.
For this reason, it is reasonable to speculate that hierarchy of needs plays an important role in bureaucratic activities. Clearly, since the technical aspects of organizations are prioritised to human factors, the emphasis of bureaucracy on financial incentives — which relates to physiological needs — is far more sound compared to other approaches of leadership.
It can be analysed that bureaucratic leaders assume that the ordinary employees are not able to take responsibility and thus avoid working hard. The only way of motivating the workforce is through strict regulations and financial rewards.
Interestingly, Democratic leadership, which is seen as the opposite of Bureaucracy, can be a potential external factor to enable the Theory Y to be more widely implemented.
To a great extent, Theory Y is maintained by Democratic principles. The smarter the determined goals, the more motivated the employees feel and put more afford in attaining those targets.
According to Manktelow J. The reason is that the Expectancy theory holds a belief that the harder the work is performed, the better the results will be; continuously, the better the outcomes are, the greater the rewards will be.
Simultaneously, in transformational leadership, it is critically important to have a brilliant vision and inspire people to achieve those aims. Accordingly, once the interrelation between performance, results and rewards are established by an organizational team, the next step would the leader of the team convincing people to increase their affords and concentration on productivity via principles of transformational leadership.
Application and Implementation of Motivational Theories in the context of British Airways and HSBC As discussed above, through motivating employees organizations are enabled to reach dramatic targets and increase their effectiveness. In the previous assignments, two of the most world-famous business companies — British Airways and HSBC were analysed on their structural, cultural and leadership as well as management aspects.
When it comes to motivating the workforce, British Airways relies on several theories of motivation. Such extra organizational benefits refer to love and belongingness needs of humans in the hierarchy and are subject to affiliate staff to the organization.
Since people have a firm desire to belong to a group, the additional financial and social opportunities strengthen such feelings. Health and safety — one of the primary concerns of BA. The main tasks in this field involve managing behavioural risk, injuries and health problems and enhancing risk awareness.Maslow's hierarchy of needs Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model.
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development.
The theory offers a basis for organizational development with high employee motivation to achieve company objectives. An organization that satisfies Maslow's principles can feature high employee satisfaction, excellent employee retention and cohesive teams.
Refinement to the Maslow Theory of Motivation Clear application to change leadership and management. unlike Maslow’s model, ERG theory includes a frustration-regression process in that the inability to satisfy a higher need causes frustration and a regression to the next lower need level.
Is your organisation. Maslow’s theory, probably the most recognized, was based on an individual’s basic needs – physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization, while Herzberg’s theory focused on an individual’s attitude towards their job and/or job duties.
The psychologist Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation is 70 years old but continues to have a strong influence on the world of business. Full-Text Paper (PDF): Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanaian Perspective.