Few historians are comfortable with the triumphalist and western Europe-centred image of the Renaissance as the irresistible march of modernity and progress. A sharp break with medieval values and institutions, a new awareness of the individual, an awakened interest in the material world… Origins and rise of humanism The term Middle Ages was coined by scholars in the 15th century to designate the interval between the downfall of the Classical world of Greece and Rome and its rediscovery at the beginning of their own century, a revival in which they felt they were participating.
Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty — Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. Inthe Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens overthrew the Liao dynasty and attempted to gain control over former Liao territory in Mongolia. In the s the Jin dynasty rulers, known as the Golden Kings, successfully resisted the Khamag Mongol confederation, ruled at the time by Khabul Khangreat-grandfather of Genghis Khan.
The Jin emperors, following a policy of divide and ruleencouraged disputes among the tribes, especially between the Tatars and the Mongols, in order to keep the nomadic tribes distracted by their own battles and thereby away from the Jin.
Khabul's successor was Ambaghai Khanwho was betrayed by the Tatars, handed over to the Jurchen, and executed.
The Mongols retaliated by raiding the frontier, resulting in a failed Jurchen counter-attack in The Mongols then resumed attacks on the Tatars to avenge the death of their late khan, opening a long period of active hostilities.
The Jin and Tatar armies defeated the Mongols in It is thought that this resulted in a rapid increase in the number of war horses and other livestock which significantly enhanced Mongol military strength. As a young man he rose very rapidly by working with Toghrul Khan of the Kerait.
The most powerful Mongol leader at the time was Kurtait; he was given the Chinese title "Wang", which means Prince. He then enlarged his Mongol state under himself and his kin. The term Mongol came to be used to refer to all Mongolic speaking tribes under the control of Genghis Khan.
His most powerful allies were his father's friend, Khereid chieftain Wang Khan Toghoril, and Temujin's childhood anda friend Jamukha of the Jadran clan.
This dissatisfaction spread to his generals and other associates, and some Mongols who had previously been allies broke their allegiance. It was there that he assumed the title of Genghis Khan universal leader instead of one of the old tribal titles such as Gur Khan or Tayang Khan, marking the start of the Mongol Empire.
Genghis Khan introduced many innovative ways of organizing his army: The Kheshigthe imperial guardwas founded and divided into day khorchin torghuds and night khevtuul guards.
He proclaimed a new code of law of the empire, Ikh Zasag or Yassa ; later he expanded it to cover much of the everyday life and political affairs of the nomads.
He forbade the selling of women, theft, fighting among the Mongols, and the hunting of animals during the breeding season. In addition to laws regarding family, food, and the army, Genghis also decreed religious freedom and supported domestic and international trade. He exempted the poor and the clergy from taxation.
He also had to deal with two other powers, Tibet and Qara Khitai. Muslims, including Huiand Jews, were collectively referred to as Huihui.
Muslims were forbidden from Halal or Zabiha butcheringwhile Jews were similarly forbidden from Kashrut or Shehita butchering.
Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right? Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.
By Rashid al-Dinearly 14th century. According to Mongol tradition, Genghis Khan was buried in a secret location. Inthe great khan personally led his army in the campaign against the Jin dynasty of China.
With the assistance of the Song dynasty the Mongols finished off the Jin in The small kingdoms in southern Persia voluntarily accepted Mongol supremacy. Gojongthe king of Goryeosurrendered but later revolted and massacred Mongol darughachis overseers ; he then moved his imperial court from Gaeseong to Ganghwa Island.
Mongol invasions of IndiaMongol invasions of Koreaand Mongol conquest of Tibet The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan inminiature from a 16th-century chronicle Meanwhile, in an offensive action against the Song dynastyMongol armies captured Siyang-yang, the Yangtze and Sichuanbut did not secure their control over the conquered areas.
The Song generals were able to recapture Siyang-yang from the Mongols in By the Mongols were encroaching upon Ryazanthe first Kievan Rus' principality they were to attack. After a three-day siege involving fierce fighting, the Mongols captured the city and massacred its inhabitants.
Byall Kievan Rus' had fallen to the Asian invaders except for a few northern cities. Mongol troops under Chormaqan in Persia connecting his invasion of Transcaucasia with the invasion of Batu and Subutai, forced the Georgian and Armenian nobles to surrender as well.
They [the Mongols] attacked Russia, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Russia; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death.
When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery.Even though the Mongol Empire and the Mali Empire were on to separate continents they had key idea in the rise of their empire that resembled each other.
The Mali and the Mongol empire both raised their empires on the sense of religious tolerance and they both accomplished cultural growth through trade. The rise of the Mali and Mongol empires had a huge impact on the regions where they were located.
The regions influenced their religious beliefs and brought out the effects of Islam, a flourishing religion in Mali but no current religion in the Mongol empire. The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a medieval West African state of the Mandinka from c.
to c. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren listen (help · info); Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; Mongolian pronunciation: [mɔŋɡ(ɔ)ɮˈiːŋ ɛt͡sˈɛnt ˈɡurəŋ]; also Орда ("the Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The second game in the Age of Empires series, Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings was released in and lauded as a very improved sequel. With 13 civilizations (Britons, Byzantines, Celts, Chinese, Franks, Goths, Japanese, Mongols, Persians, Saracens, Teutons, Turks and Vikings) it was set during The Middle Ages, from Dark Age Europe to The Renaissance, and features campaigns based on.
-Both the Mongol Empire and Sudanic States rose to power through trade. The Mongol Empire during the Pax Mongolica period was able to facilitate and control all trade along the Silk Road and served as a bridge between the nations in Eurasia.