Today, when the world again needs nations to put aside their squabbles and fight against global terror, one should wonder how the great alliance against Nazism was forged — and what role the personalities of the three leaders played in that cooperation.
Memories of World War I were too strong. Despite later claims that public opinion had limited his freedom of action, Roosevelt apparently agreed with the majority of Americans. Only then did Americans begin to understand the degree to which an Anglo-American alliance—based upon firm entente—already existed.
During the United States and Great Britain developed a remarkably close relationship at the level of military and logistical planning, based on the probability of an alliance. Even with such close cooperation, the Anglo-American entente, like almost all other ententes and alliances, was not an equal partnership.
The British found themselves repeatedly in the position of the pleader, while the United States, with its vast economic strength, soon began to act like a senior partner. Only during the early stages of the war, when the overriding concern was the prevention of a defeat at the hands of Germany and Japan, did the two nations meet on equal ground.
After it had become clear that victory was certain—roughly about the time of the Tehran Conference in December —the United States more and more frequently forced the British to accept American decisions, particularly with regard to matters affecting the postwar situation.
Problems with what Winston Churchill called the Grand Alliance fell into three categories: Disputes over military strategy found the Americans stubborn and rarely willing to compromise. Exhibiting a strong distaste for consistent British attempts to make war serve politics, particularly the preservation of the empire, American military leaders refused to consider any alternatives that did not combine the quickest and least costly path to victory.
As ever, economics and politics interacted.
Economic diplomacy between Britain and the United States, at least as it related to the critically important questions of the structure of the postwar world, found the Americans rigid in their views.
That rigidity was modified by the American desire for a postwar political alliance with Britain. Thus, the United States could and did demand that Britain eliminate the imperial preference system, which gave special trading benefits to members of the British Empire. The British realized that the system itself had outlived its usefulness; but when the Americans pressed Britain to give up its colonies, the Churchill government dug in its heels.
Faced with that response, Roosevelt backed off, partly in order to preserve the wartime alliance, but more and more in the later stages of the war because of his commitment to an Anglo-American political alliance in the postwar world.
A good example of this interplay between economic and political desires is in the case of atomic energy. Early in the war, the United States and Great Britain had agreed to work together to develop an atomic bomb.
Initially, that cooperation was stimulated by fears that the Germans would develop the bomb first. But midway through the war, once the British had no more to offer, Roosevelt, at the instigation of his advisers, cut off the flow of information on atomic energy to England.
When Churchill protested vigorously, Roosevelt changed his mind. Although Roosevelt has frequently been criticized as a political "fixer" rather than a man with an organized grand strategy, he clearly recognized the cardinal fact of the Russo-American coalition: That left Roosevelt three simple but critical alternatives.
First, he could include the Russians in the postwar power structure, hoping they would moderate their political and economic demands. Second, he could begin to confront Soviet power during the war by shaping military planning to meet postwar political needs.
Third, he could firmly confront Soviet power late in the war, but only after military victory over Germany and Japan had been assured. Despite advice from many, including Churchill, Roosevelt based his policy on the principle that the United States was not fighting one war in order to lay the groundwork for the next.
Roosevelt refused to follow the path of confrontation; but cooperation, during and after the war, did not mean simple compliance with every Russian political demand nor did it mean that Roosevelt expected postwar Soviet-American relations to be without serious tensions.
He merely emphasized the positive approach in the hope that it would engender a similar response.The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (–).
The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND THE GRAND ALLIANCE OVERVIEW The afternoon of December 7, , lazily unfolded on the East Coast of the United States Furthermore, the United States played only a minimal role in other efforts to foster.
international cooperation: at a world economic conference in London, American .
Watch video · Also, the Grand Alliance didn't collapse immediately after the war, the Cold War wasn't coming immediately after the WWII. There's a gap, the Cold War doesn't come until The Grand Alliance continues for a year or two, and actually, in that period, it's quite successful.
The Grand Alliance basic political decision underlying U.S. strategic planning throughout World War II-that the war was to be waged as a coalition effort. Despite the critical situation in the Pacific, it remained the American view that the basis of strategy must be collaboration among the powers at war with Germany, with the primary object.
The Grand Alliance, also known as The Big Three, was a military alliance consisting of the three major Allied powers of World War II: the Soviet Union, the . The Grand Alliance was an alliance made during World War II, which joined together the United States (led by Franklin Roosevelt), the Soviet Union (led by Joseph Stalin) and Great Britain (led by Winston Churchill).
Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill are often known as "The Big Three" or the Allies of.