Since the s stockbroking firms have also been allowed to be market makers as long as the appropriate Chinese walls are put in place. The stockbroker's system performs all the stockbroking functions: Today, most of the once well-known corporate brand names including mid-sized firms such as Smith Barney have been swallowed up by global financial conglomerates.
Using five performance indicators to measure health systems in member states, it finds that France provides the best overall health care followed among major countries by Italy, Spain, Oman, Austria and Japan.
Yet there is wide variation in performance, even among countries with similar levels of income and health expenditure. It is essential for decision- makers to understand the underlying reasons so that system performance, and hence the health of populations, can be improved. Many health ministries focus on the public sector and often disregard the frequently much larger private sector health care.
In many countries, some if not most physicians work simultaneously for the public sector and in private practice. This means the public sector ends up subsidizing unofficial private practice.
Many governments fail to prevent a "black market" in health, where widespread corruption, bribery, "moonlighting" and other illegal practices flourish. The black markets, which themselves are caused by malfunctioning health systems, and low income of health workers, further undermine those systems.
Many health ministries fail to enforce regulations that they themselves have created or are supposed to implement in the public interest. Because of the AIDS epidemic, healthy life expectancy for babies born in in many of these nations has dropped to 40 years or less.
One key recommendation from the report is for countries to extend health insurance to as large a percentage of the population as possible. WHO says that it is better to make "pre-payments" on health care as much as possible, whether in the form of insurance, taxes or social security.
What we are seeing is that in many countries, the poor pay a higher percentage of their income on health care than the rich.
In other words, illness forces them into debt.
In Europe, health systems in Mediterranean countries such as France, Italy and Spain are rated higher than others in the continent. Norway is the highest Scandinavian nation, at 11th. Colombia, Chile, Costa Rica and Cuba are rated highest among the Latin American nations — 22nd, 33rd, 36th and 39th in the world, respectively.
Singapore is ranked 6ththe only Asian country apart from Japan in the top 10 countries. In the Pacific, Australia ranks 32 nd overall, while New Zealand is 41st. In the Middle East and North Africa, many countries rank highly: The child mortality rate was high. But major government investments have proved to be successful in improving system performance.
Information in the WHO report also rates countries according to the different components of the performance index. The reason these are all advanced industrial nations is that a number of the elements of responsiveness depend strongly on the availability of resources.
Fairness of financial contribution: When WHO measured the fairness of financial contribution to health systems, countries lined up differently. Colombia achieved top rank because someone with a low income might pay the equivalent of one dollar per year for health care, while a high- income individual pays 7.
Brazil, a middle-income nation, ranks low in this table because its people make high out-of-pocket payments for health care. This means a substantial number of households pay a large fraction of their income after paying for food on health care.
The reason why the Russian Federation ranks low is most likely related to the impact of the economic crisis in the s. This has severely reduced government spending on health and led to increased out-of-pocket payment.
In North America, Canada rates as the country with the fairest mechanism for health system finance — ranked atwhile the United States is at Cuba is the highest among Latin American and Caribbean nations at The report indicates — clearly — the attributes of a good health system in relation to the elements of the performance measure, given below.
Overall Level of Health: A good health system, above all, contributes to good health. To assess overall population health and thus to judge how well the objective of good health is being achieved, WHO has chosen to use the measure of disability- adjusted life expectancy DALE.
This has the advantage of being directly comparable to life expectancy and is readily compared across populations. The report provides estimates for all countries of disability- adjusted life expectancy.17 Sep , pm Comment: Voters prefer no deal to Theresa May's Brexit.
Project Fear won't change their minds. What is 'Gross Domestic Product - GDP' Gross domestic product (GDP) is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period.
The author is head of the Indicators and Analysis Division in the Directorate of Education at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris. Get Full Text in PDF. Table of Contents. Introduction; Tools and Measures; Measures of National Income; Need for New Theory; Measures and Indicators; Characteristics of a Successful Indicator.
* Some common measures of income in the U.S.
are reported by the Congressional Budget Office, Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Internal Revenue Service, and Federal Reserve. Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year..
As of , the average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is USD $17,